# Variance

Returns the variance of a sample represented by a series of non-blank values in a field.

`Variance(field{;field...})`

## Parameters

`field`

- any related field, repeating field, or set of non-repeating fields; or an expression that returns a field, repeating field, or set of non-repeating fields.

Parameters in braces { } are optional.

## Data type returned

number

## Originated in

FileMaker Pro 7.0

## Description

The variance of a distribution is a measure of how spread out the distribution is. `Field`

can be any of the following:

•a repeating field `(repeatingField)`

.

•a field in matching related records specified by `(table::field)`

, whether or not these records appear in a portal.

•several non-repeating fields in a record `(field1;field2;field3...)`

.

•corresponding repetitions of repeating fields in a record `(repeatingField1;repeatingField2;repeatingField3)`

, if the result is returned in a repeating field with at least the same number of repeats.

•several fields in the first matching record specified by `(table::field1;table::field2;...)`

. You can include fields from different tables `(table 1::field A;table 2::field B...)`

.

## Example 1

A portal displays the related values 5, 6, 7, and 8 in `Scores`

.

`Variance(table::Scores)`

returns **1.66666666...**.

## Example 2

In the following examples:

•Field1 contains two repetitions with values of 1 and 2.

•Field2 contains four repetitions with values of 5, 6, 7, and 8.

•Field3 contains four repetitions with values of 6, 0, 4,and 4.

•Field4 contains one repetition with a value of 3.

`Variance(Field4)`

results in an error since the variance of a single value is not defined.

`Variance(Field1;Field2;Field3)`

returns **7, 9.33333333...**, **4.5**, **8** if the calculation is a repeating field.

## Example 3

Two classes of students take an exam. Class 1 has scores of 70, 71, 70, 74, 75, 73, 72 and Class 2 has scores of 55, 80, 75, 40, 65, 50, 95. The variance for each class is:

Class 1: **3.80952380...**

Class 2: **361.90476190...**

The variance for Class 1 is much lower than the variance for Class 2, because the scores for Class 2 are more spread out.

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