This guide describes the security features available with the FileMaker platform and the steps you can take as a solution developer, a server administrator, or an IT professional to apply these security features to your FileMaker solutions.
Depending on your security compliance and certification requirements, there may be additional steps you need to take. It is your responsibility to fully understand these requirements.
For the latest FileMaker security updates, see the FileMaker Knowledge Base.
The FileMaker platform's features help you control data access, operations, and development within a FileMaker file. Key capabilities include:
The FileMaker platform employs a unified security model, where the security that you establish for a solution is in effect across all clients.
Security settings defined within a solution using FileMaker Pro apply only to the information and schema (layouts, tables, fields, relationships, and scripts) stored in that solution.
Security settings configured within FileMaker Server are server-specific and apply to all solutions hosted by the server.
Make the solutions you design in FileMaker Pro more secure by using FileMaker Pro features to authenticate users, limit access to the solution, encrypt data, and enhance functionality in secure ways.
FileMaker solutions require users to authenticate with an account name and password combination. Each account is given specific access privileges based on the associated privilege set. See Define privilege sets in this guide.
Create a unique account for each user. This allows you to track who is creating or modifying individual records or taking other actions in your solution. Track this information by using auto-enter field settings or by using the Get(AccountName) function in calculations and scripts. See Use functions, scripts, and script triggers to enhance security in this guide.
Note: Shared accounts are a security risk, so use individual accounts instead of shared accounts. If you must use shared accounts, limit the access capabilities of the privilege sets that the shared accounts use. Change the password frequently and when specific users no longer require access.
FileMaker solutions can authenticate accounts either internally or externally.
Each solution initially contains two accounts: Admin and Guest.
The Admin account permits access to everything in the solution. By default, this account is assigned the Full Access privilege set. This account is fully editable. You can rename it, assign it a password, and make the account inactive. You can delete the Admin account, but the file will require at least one account with the Full Access privilege set unless you remove that privilege set completely.
By default, the Admin account has no password. Assign one when you first begin working in FileMaker Pro.
The Guest account allows users to access a file without supplying any account information. By default, this account is assigned the Read-Only Access privilege set, but you can assign the account any privilege.
Initially, the Guest account is inactive. You cannot delete the Guest account, change the Guest account name, or assign it a password.
When you create a new solution, FileMaker Pro creates an Admin account with the Full Access privilege set. This Admin account does not have a password.
Be sure to assign a password to this account to prevent unauthorized access to your data and database schema.
When you create a new solution, FileMaker Pro creates a Guest account with the Read-Only Access privilege set. This Guest account does not have a password.
Do not enable the Guest account unless it is necessary for the solution. If you enable the Guest account, it's possible to quickly reach the maximum number of User Connections clients if many users log in to the Guest account in a short period of time.
See Creating and editing accounts in FileMaker Pro Help.
When you create an account, you give it an account name, password, and privilege set.
Select Require password change on next login in the Edit Account dialog box to prompt the user to create a password.
Passwords are stored using a one-way hash, meaning the password can be encrypted but never decrypted. You can reset a password, but you can't recover a password.
New solutions don't prompt for account names or passwords. To prompt users to enter account names and passwords, deselect Log in using in the File Options dialog box.
Do not allow Keychain Access to save account names and passwords. When you prevent Keychain Access, FileMaker prompts users to enter account names and passwords each time they open the solution. If you do allow Keychain Access, you can require iOS users to enter their iOS device passcode before opening the solution.
FileMaker files can access one another in a multifile solution. This can be useful, for example, if you have a centrally accessible file of employee contact information that is used by multiple internal solutions.
When you open one file from another (such as for viewing external data or running a script in an external file), FileMaker passes the credentials the user supplied at login to the second file. If there is a corresponding account and matching password, FileMaker logs the user in to the second file. If there is no corresponding account, the user must log in to the second file.
You can create accounts manually in multiple files, but you may cause data entry errors. To reduce such errors, use external authentication. See Set up external authentication in this guide.
Review the accounts and privilege sets in each file of a multifile solution. If privilege sets do not match across files or an account has additional privileges in a file, users may gain access to data that would normally be restricted to them. See Define privilege sets in this guide.
Additionally, make sure that users cannot make references to files in a solution without the solution designer's assistance. Otherwise, they may gain access to restricted data. See Restrict references to a solution in this guide.
If you host files using FileMaker Server, you can create external server accounts that are authenticated by Active Directory or Open Directory. You can then use your existing authentication server to control access to databases, instead of managing an independent list of accounts in each FileMaker Pro database file.
Alternatively, you can use local security groups and accounts on the server machine hosting FileMaker Server. Refer to Help for your operating system.
Use external authentication if:
If you host files using FileMaker Server installed on Windows Server and use Active Directory for external authentication, your Windows users can use Single Sign-On with FileMaker Pro.
There is a risk with external authentication that someone will gain access to your file by simulating the external authentication environment or mismanaging the groups. It is your responsibility to prevent this by maintaining the security of your external authentication server. Enable database encryption for your solution files to reduce this risk. Database encryption requires users to provide the encryption password before they can share the file on FileMaker Server. See Encrypt data in this guide.
To use external authentication, set up external authentication accounts within the file using FileMaker Pro, then host the file using FileMaker Server, and configure it for external authentication. See Creating accounts that authenticate via an external server in FileMaker Pro Help, Enable external authentication in this guide, and Setting up FileMaker Pro clients and FileMaker Server to use external authentication using the LDAP protocol in the FileMaker Knowledge Base.
Privilege sets grant access to the features a user can see and the tasks a user can do. They allow you to control access to data and schema. You can use a privilege set with multiple accounts.
Every new FileMaker solution contains three predefined privilege sets:
You can also create new privilege sets to meet your specific requirements. Typically, you will create a privilege set for each unique role in your organization. A privilege set is made up of these access options:
All clients and tools that access FileMaker solutions respect users' privilege sets. If a user is assigned a privilege set that does not allow access to a field, the user cannot access the field via FileMaker Pro, FileMaker Go, FileMaker WebDirect, Custom Web Publishing, ODBC and JDBC applications, external tools like AppleScript or ActiveX, or by other means.
To create a privilege set, name and configure the privileges you want users to have for the solution.
By default, most privileges are turned off. This limits a user's privileges to only those necessary to fulfill the user's role.
See Creating and editing privilege sets in FileMaker Pro Help.
Data access and design privileges grant access to different parts of a file and apply to all tables, layouts, value lists, and scripts.
You can also design custom privileges to further restrict access privileges.
Extended privileges determine how users access a shared file. Once you enable extended privileges for a privilege set, any accounts attached to that privilege set can access the file according to what the extended privilege allows.
The following table lists the default extended privileges.
|fmwebdirect||Access a database file from a web browser via FileMaker WebDirect (FileMaker Server only).|
|fmxdbc||Access a database file as an ODBC or JDBC data source.|
|fmapp||Open a shared file (either a file shared by FileMaker Pro or hosted and shared by FileMaker Server).|
|fmreauthenticate[x]||Access a file in FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Go without having to re-log in after file hibernation or after using a different app. The default time is ten minutes.|
|fmxml||Access a database file from a web browser or other application via XML web publishing (FileMaker Server only).|
|fmphp||Access a database file from a web browser or other application via PHP web publishing (FileMaker Server only).|
|fmscriptdisabled||Prevent AppleScript and ActiveX from performing FileMaker scripts.|
Important If your users use FileMaker Go, specify the fmreauthenticate[x] extended privilege.
FileMaker Go allows multitasking. When the user answers a call or moves to another app, FileMaker Go moves to the background and saves the state of the file.
With the fmreauthenticate[x] extended privilege, when FileMaker Go switches to the foreground, users must reenter the account name and password if the specified time limit, [x] minutes, has elapsed. For example, an extended privilege of fmreauthenticate10 allows the user to keep FileMaker Go in the background for up to ten minutes before the user must log in again. You can create as many extended privileges with different time periods as you need and assign them to different privilege sets. Users can attempt to enter their account name and password five times before FileMaker Go closes the file.
The fmreauthenticate[x] extended privilege also reconnects a FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Go client to a FileMaker host after a network outage or a standby server switchover operation. If the client was disconnected from the host for over x minutes, the client must reauthenticate.
You can create custom extended privileges to simplify your scripts or to manage the business rules you need to enforce. For example, create custom extended privileges to allow users to run certain reports.
See Editing extended privileges for a privilege set in FileMaker Pro Help.
Other privileges specify whether the privilege set allows users to:
To ensure that users can't gain access to parts of the solution and schema that would normally be restricted to them, use FileMaker Pro Advanced to permanently remove the Full Access privilege set from the solution.
Important Removing the Full Access privilege set permanently deletes from the solution all accounts that were using the Full Access privilege set. This permanently eliminates access to Layout mode, the Script Workspace, and all tabs in the Manage Security dialog box except Extended Privilege. This includes all database files in the solution, whether opened in a runtime application or in FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Pro Advanced. Schema and design elements of the files cannot be recovered. The only way to modify the tables, field definitions, relationships, scripts, or access privileges is by returning to the original file before it was customized by the Developer Utilities in FileMaker Pro Advanced.
See Removing Admin access to databases (FileMaker Pro Advanced) in FileMaker Pro Help.
Use FileMaker Pro Advanced to encrypt all the information stored in a file (also known as Encryption at Rest). Database encryption protects your solution if someone gains physical access to the file.
Database encryption requires a local FileMaker account with Full Access privileges to all files, an encryption password, and a Shared ID. Users must enter the encryption password whenever FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Go opens a local file, or when FileMaker Server opens a file before hosting it. The Shared ID links multiple encrypted files. When one encrypted file attempts to access another encrypted file, the user will not be prompted again for the encryption password if the files' encryption passwords and Shared IDs match.
See Encrypting database files (FileMaker Pro Advanced) in FileMaker Pro Help and Use strong passwords in this guide.
When you open an encrypted file on FileMaker Server, an option to save the password allows FileMaker Server to automatically open encrypted files when the server restarts. FileMaker Server employs a two-way AES-256 encryption that uses a composite key based on information from the machine to encrypt the password, and stores the password securely on the server.
When container data is configured to be stored externally, FileMaker encrypts the data by default. If you do not want to encrypt externally stored container data, you can keep the data in open storage. See Setting up container fields to store data externally in FileMaker Pro Help.
If database encryption is enabled for a solution, all container data is encrypted by default. If you do not want to encrypt container data when you encrypt database files, you can keep the container data in open storage. See Encrypting database files (FileMaker Pro Advanced) in FileMaker Pro Help.
Design layouts that limit users' view of data and access to features according to their needs and privilege sets. Also, consider hiding the status toolbar and instead providing buttons that perform allowed tasks.
Note: Limiting access to solution data and features on a layout does not prevent users from accessing data with script steps, functions, AppleScript, or by other means. Define privilege sets to restrict user access to data and features in all clients. See Define privilege sets in this guide.
Use FileMaker functions, scripts, and script triggers to enhance security for common tasks such as deleting, auditing, and maintaining records. For example, use scripts to:
Important Do not use functions, scripts, and script triggers to replace FileMaker security features.
Keep the following points in mind:
Restrict references to a solution to prevent the solution's schema from being accessed by unauthorized files. For another file to access the solution's schema and data, either the file must be authorized within the solution or the user must enter valid credentials for the solution.
You can specify that only accounts with the Full Access privilege set can create references to the solution, ensuring that only solution designers and administrators can reference the solution.
In a multifile solution, you must authorize each file that needs access to another file's schema.
See Authorizing access to files in FileMaker Pro Help.
Set a minimum version of FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Go that's allowed to access the solution. Newer versions of FileMaker clients provide features and security changes not available in older verisons, so restrict which clients can access to the solution. See Setting file options in FileMaker Pro Help.
Use plug-ins only from trusted sources because plug-ins can access and modify your solution and connect to other services over the Internet.
For additional security and to prevent unauthorized plug-ins from being installed, you can enable or disable the installation of plug-in files. This is a FileMaker Pro preference, not a file preference, and determines whether plug-ins can be installed on the user's computer.
FileMaker Server hosts solutions for the following clients:
The following sections outline the steps for setting up security in FileMaker Server Admin Console.
Before you begin, be sure that you installed FileMaker Server in a secure location and that you are using SSL encryption to encrypt HTTPS communication between clients and the server:
You can use your existing authentication server to control access to files without having to manage an independent list of accounts in each file.
Set up external authentication accounts within the file using FileMaker Pro, host the file using FileMaker Server, and configure it for external authentication. To set up accounts in FileMaker Pro, see Set up external authentication in this guide.
To enable external authentication in FileMaker Server:
To use Active Directory or Open Directory, the server where FileMaker Server is installed must be a member of the domain used for external authentication.
Test thoroughly. See Test security settings in this guide.
The Launch Center in FileMaker Pro, FileMaker Go, and FileMaker WebDirect displays a list of hosted solutions. By default, the list shows all the hosted solutions available on a server. The server administrator can limit this list to show only the solutions that the current user may access.
See Database Server security settings in FileMaker Server Help.
Make sure all hosted databases require a client to specify an account and password. The following types of databases are insecure:
To prevent these insecure databases from being hosted:
FileMaker Pro 15 checks this setting when a FileMaker Pro user attempts to upload a database using the Upload to FileMaker Server menu item. When this setting is enabled, FileMaker Pro 15 does not allow the above types of insecure databases to be uploaded. (FileMaker Pro 13 or FileMaker Pro 14 users can upload databases that are not password protected, but FileMaker Server does not open them for hosting when this setting is enabled.)
See Database Server security settings in FileMaker Server Help.
As FileMaker Server runs, it logs server activity. Use the log files to collect client access information and other information needed for regulatory and auditing purposes.
To view, sort, filter, and export the log file entries, choose the Log Viewer pane in Admin Console, select one or more log file modules for Logs, and enter a date range using the Start and End fields.
To see log messages that relate to security features, enter the "SECURITY:" keyword into the Filter field.
See Viewing log file entries in FileMaker Server Help.
Set the maximum time that FileMaker users can be idle when they are connected to a file hosted by FileMaker Server. This idle time limit reduces the risk of your files being accessed by an unattended computer or mobile device. However, make sure the idle time is long enough to avoid frequent disconnections.
In FileMaker Pro, in the Edit Privilege Set dialog box, select Disconnect user from server when idle for each privilege set you want disconnected when a user is idle. Because you can set this option for each privilege set, certain users are disconnected when idle and other users will always maintain their connections. Users logged in with the Full Access privilege set are never disconnected when idle.
In FileMaker Server, to specify the idle time:
See FileMaker clients settings in FileMaker Server Help.
FileMaker Server offers two types of backups: scheduled and progressive. If data in a file is destroyed, you can revert to the backup. Be sure to specify a secure physical location for stored backups.
With a scheduled backup, FileMaker Server checks whether data has changed since the last backup and creates a full copy of any databases and container data that have changed.
With a progressive backup, FileMaker Server creates two full backups in the progressive backup folder of all hosted databases. Then, after the specified interval, it applies any changes to the oldest backup copy.
FileMaker Server saves backups only to local disks. Use other tools to copy the local backups to provide offsite backups for disaster recovery.
Important FileMaker Server creates the directory structure for these backups. To work with a backup file, leave the original file unchanged in the backup folder. Never open the original backup file with FileMaker Pro, edit it, or move it out of the backup folder. Instead, copy the file and work exclusively with the copy.
See Understanding backup options in FileMaker Server Help.
As the server administrator, you can use administrator groups to delegate database administration tasks to other users. You retain exclusive and complete control of FileMaker Server. Group administrators are not allowed to configure FileMaker Server, and you specify which database administration tasks the group administrators may do.
You can use external authentication to validate the credentials of the users in your administrator groups and to support Admin Console login. See Enable external authentication in this guide.
See Configuring administrator group settings in FileMaker Server Help.
Solution developers may design FileMaker Pro databases to use the Perform Script on Server script step for performance reasons. For security reasons, the server administrator can decide whether to permit Perform Script on Server in hosted solutions.
To disable use of Perform Script on Server, use the Database Server > FileMaker Clients tab in Admin Console to set the Maximum Simultaneous Script Sessions to 0 (zero). Any value above zero will allow the Perform Script on Server script step to perform in hosted solutions.
See FileMaker clients settings in FileMaker Server Help.
Solution developers can design FileMaker Pro databases to use server-side plug-ins. To enable plug-ins in FileMaker Pro, see Enable plug-ins in this guide.
In Admin Console, use the Database Server > Server Plug-Ins tab to select the Enable FileMaker Script Engine (FMSE) to use plug-ins setting. This setting enables the FileMaker Script Engine to use external function plug-ins.
When this setting is enabled, you can allow scheduled scripts and scripts that run using the Perform Script on Server script step to install, update, and load plug-ins by selecting the Allow Install Plug-In File script step to install, update, and load Server plug-ins setting. If you think some plug-ins might be a security risk, leave this checkbox deselected. When this checkbox is deselected, you can still manually install plug-ins on the server, and use the Database Server > Server Plug-Ins tab to enable or disable the plug-ins.
See Server plug-in settings in FileMaker Server Help.
In Admin Console, if you use the General Settings > Email Notifications tab to enter the SMTP configuration information for an email server, verify the security of that email server. The email server should always use the most recent Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol for communication.
See Email notification settings in FileMaker Server Help.
FileMaker software runs on your computers and your network. Clients may be accessing your hosted data using your company intranet or over the Internet. As you consider the security of the FileMaker platform, consider the security of your system environment.
The following sections describe how to make your system environment more secure for the FileMaker platform.
Though accounts and privilege sets provide good database protection, they do not provide a completely secure solution. You must protect access to your files and information, and not rely solely on FileMaker Pro access privileges. For example:
FileMaker Server can contain up to three components:
You can deploy these components on one machine or across two machines. When the components are deployed across multiple machines, you can control where each machine is in relation to your firewall. For example, you can choose to place all components behind the firewall to restrict access to the LAN network. Or you can place the most sensitive data residing in the Database Server behind the firewall and give customers access to public, non-sensitive data over FileMaker WebDirect.
Important To enhance the security of your database solution, especially on the Internet, use a firewall on the public side of a FileMaker Server deployment. Also use SSL for the web server. See Set up SSL encryption in this guide.
See chapter 1 of FileMaker Server Getting Started Guide.
Encrypt the data passed between the Database Server and FileMaker clients by using SSL technology. An SSL certificate is a data file provided by a certificate authority (CA) that digitally identifies the sender, receiver, or both parties of a secure transaction. SSL certificates are installed on machines running FileMaker applications to provide secure connections between FileMaker Server and FileMaker clients. FileMaker Server provides a default SSL certificate signed by FileMaker, Inc. that does not verify the server name.
Important The FileMaker default certificate is intended only for test purposes. A custom SSL certificate is required for production use.
SSL encryption is especially important if clients are accessing your hosted data over the Internet. If you do not use encryption, then your data may be viewed by software that is monitoring your network.
To use SSL encryption:
See Securing your data in FileMaker Server Help.
See List of supported SSL certificate types and vendors for FileMaker platform in the FileMaker Knowledge Base.
FileMaker Server uses SSL technology to encrypt HTTPS connections between the web server and users' web browsers for Admin Console, FileMaker WebDirect, and Custom Web Publishing. The Database Server can also use SSL encryption for connections with FileMaker Pro clients, FileMaker Go clients, and the Web Publishing Engine.
By default, data stored in an interactive container is sent unencrypted using HTTP via progressive downloading (streaming). To use SSL for progressive downloading:
If Use SSL for progressive downloading is enabled, FileMaker Server encrypts progressive downloading of container data using an HTTPS connection if you have a custom SSL certificate. When this setting is not enabled, the interactive content is downloaded over an unencrypted HTTP connection, not an HTTPS connection, even when Use SSL for database connections is enabled.
Note: If SSL is enabled for database connections but progressive downloading is set to use an unencrypted connection, images on layouts and data in interactive containers may not appear in the web browser.
To test the encryption between the Database Server and FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Go clients, use the Get(ConnectionState) function. It will return a value of:
For example, write a script to run when a file is opened that alerts the user if the connection to FileMaker Server is not secure.
The user may see a lock icon in the lower-left corner of the FileMaker Pro window after a hosted file is opened.
Note: If your server's custom SSL certificate is a wildcard certificate and the clients use the IP address of the server rather than the fully qualified host name, they may see an encrypted connection where the SSL certificate for FileMaker Server cannot be verified. To see an encrypted connection with a verified SSL certificate, your clients should add the fully qualified host name as a favorite host in the Launch Center.
FileMaker Server requires a minimum update of Java Runtime Environment. If that minimum version is not available when FileMaker Server is installed, then the FileMaker Server installer installs the Java Runtime Environment.
Security updates to Java are frequently posted to the java.com website. FileMaker Server updates may include Java updates, but the java.com website provides Java updates more frequently.
The FileMaker Knowledge Base maintains an article called FileMaker Server and Java, which lists the recommended version of Java that you should use with FileMaker Server. Before applying an update to Java on the machine where FileMaker Server is installed, review the information in this article.
For Custom Web Publishing with PHP, you must install PHP on the machine where the Web Server Module is located. When you install FileMaker Server, you can choose whether to install the FileMaker supported version of PHP or use your own PHP engine.
Security updates to PHP are frequently posted to the php.net website. FileMaker Server updates may include PHP updates, but the php.net website provides PHP updates more frequently. To apply PHP updates more frequently, install and maintain your own PHP engine.
If you maintain your own PHP engine, you must manually install the FileMaker API for PHP in order to use Custom Web Publishing with PHP. See FileMaker Server Custom Web Publishing Guide.
FileMaker Server uses a default FileMaker Database Server Website page. This page doesn't reveal any security information about your server, but it does indicate that the server is running FileMaker Server. Clients can view the default page at these URLs:
where [host] is the IP address or domain name of the master machine in your FileMaker Server deployment.
To replace this default page, replace the "index.html" file found on the master machine at these locations:
The FileMaker platform uses passwords for authentication in several areas. FileMaker Server requires a password for the administrator account. FileMaker Pro allows you to define account passwords and encryption passwords. Use strong passwords. When you are creating a password, FileMaker software analyzes the password and notifies you of the password strength.
For account passwords, FileMaker Pro and FileMaker Server allow you to use external authentication. With external authentication, you manage passwords using Active Directory on Windows or using Open Directory on OS X rather than storing the passwords in FileMaker software. See Set up external authentication in this guide.
When you have completed setting up FileMaker security features, test the security of your solution.
Continually evaluate your security implementation to make sure your data is still protected. Verify that users have the latest, most secure versions of their operating systems and FileMaker software.
It is your responsibility to fully understand your security compliance requirements and take the appropriate steps.
In addition to the guidelines outlined in this document, depending on your internal or regulatory requirements (COBIT, HIPAA, ISO, PCI, NIST, FIPS, and so on), there may be additional steps you need to take.
Provide documentation on a layout in your solution or on a webpage to explain to web users how to securely interact with the solution. Include information about accounts, passwords, how to connect securely to FileMaker Server, how to use functions and scripts, and any other security concerns or requirements regarding your solution.
|Manage accounts, privileges, extended privileges or file access||
FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Pro Advanced:
File menu > Manage > Security.
|Immediately stop someone from accessing any data||
FileMaker Server Admin Console:
FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Pro Advanced:
If the user has access via an external authentication group, remove the user from the external authentication group or disable the user's account in the external authentication server.
In an emergency, close the file to prevent access by everyone.
|Force a user to change his or her password||
FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Pro Advanced:
Note: You can also write a script to force more than one user to take this action.
If the user has access via external authentication, manage the user's password using your Active Directory or Open Directory server.
|View FileMaker Server log files||
FileMaker Server Admin Console:
Choose the Log Viewer pane.
FileMaker encrypts data in different ways depending on how the data is stored or transmitted. This table lists the cipher types used when FileMaker encrypts data.
|Account password||One-way hash|
|Admin Console password||One-way hash|
|Database Encryption||AES-256 CBC mode|
Note: With SSL, the cipher mode is dependent on the host and client negotiation, so the cipher mode could be CBC or GCM (or others in the future).
|Secure Storage of container data (with Database Encryption disabled)||AES-128 CBC mode|
|Secure Storage of container data (with Database Encryption enabled)||AES-256 CBC mode|
See Ports used by FileMaker Server in the FileMaker Knowledge Base.
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